White Papers

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The Private Sector’s Pivotal Role in Combating Human Trafficking

  • Jonathan Todres, Associate Professor of Law, Georgia State University College of Law (via Social Sciences Research Network (ssrn.com)
  • Published:  February 2012

Abstract:

Human trafficking is big business, with industry estimates running in the billions of dollars annually. Much of that profit accrues to traffickers, illegal profiteers, and organized crime groups. However, the private sector also reaps economic benefits, directly and indirectly, from human trafficking. Despite these economic realities, the dominant approach to combating human trafficking has been to rely almost exclusively on governments and social services organizations to do the job. Little has been asked of the private sector. Two important bills – one adopted by the State of California and the other introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives – might signal the beginning of a change in the prevailing approach to combating human trafficking. This essay explores the role the private sector can play in combating human trafficking. It examines the rationale for private sector involvement in anti-trafficking efforts and discusses ways in which policy makers can utilize law to spur private sector engagement in the fight against human trafficking.

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Progress Report on Criminal Justice Responses to Trafficking in Persons in the ASEAN Region.

  • Fiona David, Anne Gallagher, Paul Holmes and Albert Moskowitz (via www.artipproject.org).
  • Published, July 2011.

Abstract:

The issue of trafficking in persons (TIP) has been on the agenda of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its Member States since the early 1990s.The first reports of trafficking in this region concerned cases of women and girls being moved within or across borders for purposes of sexual exploitation and servile marriage. Over the past two decades, much more information has become available about the nature and diversity of TIP in South East Asia. It is now well understood that in this region, as in all others, trafficking involves the criminal exploitation of women, men, girls and boys, in a wide range of industries and settings. For example, recent investigations have uncovered instances of boys being subjected to forced labor on fishing vessels; men, women and children being enslaved in garment and food processing factories; and the forced labor and sexual exploitation of domestic workers. In time, it is likely that further information will emerge about other, lesser-known forms of trafficking, such as trafficking for the purposes of organ removal and sale.

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Addressing the Demand Side of Trafficking

  • Phil Marshal - Director of Research Communications Group [www.rcgglobal.net] (via rightswork.org)
  • Published, Jan. 24, 2012.

Abstract:

This paper briefly raises some issues around the demand side of trafficking, initially focusing on demand relating to exploitative labor practices and then discussing issues around demand contributing to exploitation for sexual purposes.  It is very much an opinion piece, intended to promote discussion.

The demand side of trafficking has started to attract more attention in recent times, perhaps due to the lack of evidence for success of prevention programs that focus on what is often called the supply-side – reducing the number of people that are vulnerable to being trafficked. This lack of progress on the supply side is hardly surprising given the size of the potential supply pool, that is the number of potential migrants who, in the absence of effective protection, are vulnerable to being exploited.

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Identifying Human Trafficking Victims | Building The Infrastructure of Anti-Trafficking: Information, Funding, Responses

  • Fiona David – Research Expert, Trafficking in Persons, Consultant to the Australian Institute of Criminology (via fionadavid.com)
  • Published, 2011.

Abstract:

Reliable estimates of the incidence of “trafficking in persons” in individual communities and countries do not exist yet.  In my view, even with the best efforts of truly gifted statisticians (e.g., U.S. Government Accountability Office [GAO], 2007: Appendix III), it is inevitable that, as a relatively new crime type, our knowledge of the nature and extent of this crime will continue to grow only as our responses to this crime evolve and improve. As Farrell, McDevitt, and Fahy (2010, this issue) noted in their article, reported incidences of relatively new forms of crime, such as hate crime and domestic violence, increased only after the “symbolic” laws were given operational effect through the removal of the ambiguity of key terms, the introduction of targeted training on new laws, and the development of protocol to aid in the identification of these new forms of crime.  The same logic applies to the crime of trafficking in persons. This trend certainly has been my experience as a researcher working on “trafficking in persons” in Australia for approximately 10 years.

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Human Trafficking for Organ Removal: Evidence from Egypt.

  • Debra Budiani-Saberi (via rightswork.org)
  • Published, March 5, 2012.

Abstract:

Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) occurs across the globe and constitutes egregious human rights abuses. The crime is included in the UN Trafficking Protocol and is the subject of the 2008 Istanbul Declaration on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism.  In a recent report, Sudanese Victims of Organ Trafficking in Egypt, the Coalition for Organ-Failure Solutions (COFS) presents an extraordinary set of preliminary findings about the hidden world of human trafficking for organ removal in Egypt. Through its on-the-ground investigation, COFS has uncovered compelling evidence that traffickers have exploited and are continuing to exploit Sudanese refugees and asylum-seekers for their organs in Egypt. These abuses include removing kidneys either by inducing consent, coercion, or outright theft. The victims include men, women and children. Many of the victims came to Egypt seeking refuge from the genocide and armed conflict in their homeland.

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The Integration of Non-Profits and For-Profits: New Models of Intentional Economic Empowerment to Combat Human Trafficking

  • Keturah Lee Schroeder Scott: A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Arts and Sciences Master’s Program in International Studies, University of San Francisco
  • Published, Dec. 2011.

Abstract:

Human trafficking, also known as modern-day slavery, is a pervasive human rights abuse of the Twenty-first Century.  It was not abolished in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865.  It was not eradicated in Britain with the Abolition of Slavery Act of 1833, nor in Brazil in 1888.  Modern-day slavery not only exists in the Twenty-first Century; it flourishes.  Research shows there are more slaves today than at the height of the Eighteenth Century trans-Atlantic slave trade (Bales, 2009, p.3).  Over a century after the above laws were enacted, criminalizing slavery and advancing the foundational moral tenets of human freedom and dignity, modern-day slavery persists as a thriving black market criminal industry.  This startling phenomenon begs the questions: What is modern-day slavery? Who does it affect? And what elements allow it to flourish? The following research stems from the work of a modern-day abolitionist who is professionally employed at an anti-trafficking non-profit.  The researcher employs internal working knowledge of the modern-day abolitionist movement and a passion to see the advancement of that movement.

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Human Trafficking Online: The Role of Social Networking Sites and Online Classifieds

  • Mark Latonero, Ph.D.: Principal Investigator, Research Director, USC
  • Published, 2011.

Abstract:

This report presents a comprehensive examination of the role of social networking sites and online classified ads in facilitating human trafficking and delivers recommendations for developing technological innovations to monitor and combat trafficking.

Human trafficking, a form of modern-day slavery, is a grim reality of the 21st-century global landscape in developed as well as developing countries. While traditional channels of trafficking remain in place, online technologies give traffickers the unprecedented ability to exploit a greater number of victims and advertise their services across geographic boundaries.  Yet the extent to which online technologies are used in both sex and labor trafficking is unclear, and the current approach to the question is lacking. While online classified sites such as Craigslist have already been under intense scrutiny for being used by traffickers,1  little research is available on the role of online classified and social networking sites in human trafficking, and the issue has yet to be fully studied. Instead of singling out these technologies as a root cause of trafficking, this report poses the following question: Can online technologies be leveraged to provide actionable, data-driven information in real time to those positioned to help victims?

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Freedom’s Sacred Cause: The importance of Grassroots Abolitionist Advocacy in modern United States Human Trafficking Legislation

  • Sarah E. Pixler: Thomas M. Cooley Law School
  • Published, 2011.

Abstract:

Trafficking in persons is one of the most offensive and profane crimes in the world today.  It is nearly impossible to get dressed in the morning, make the daily commute, eat a meal, or even use a cellular phone without using goods tainted by forced labor.  Although, at a glance, the prospect of ending modern slavery once and for all seems bleak at best, there is good news.  Passionate citizens can influence human trafficking legislation in the United States (and around the world) through participation in grassroots abolitionist advocacy.  The greatest enemy of the anti-trafficking struggle is the failure to speak out and take action.  Taking part in legislative advocacy within the greater anti-trafficking movement is one of the best ways for modern-day abolitionists to end the silence.  This discussion begins with facts, history, and definitions of slavery and a summary of historical anti-slavery legislation.  Next is a discussion of the most significant enacted and proposed measures of human trafficking legislation since the year 2000.  The conversation concludes with a framework for encouraging and empowering grassroots constituent advocacy and involvement in legislation, as well as highlighting the effectiveness, significance, and power of concerned citizens in the struggle to end slavery in our lifetime.

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Economics of Human Trafficking

  • Elizabeth M. Wheaton: Equip the Saints
  • Edward J. Schauer: Prairie View A&M University
  • Thomas V. Galli: Chaminade University of Honolulu
  • Published, 2010.

Abstract:

Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human wellbeing, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164–165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created.

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Sex Trafficking into the United States: A Literature Review

  • Edward J. Schauer: Prairie View A&M University
  • Elizabeth M. Wheaton: Equip the Saints
  • Published, 2006.

Abstract:

This study is an investigation of the literature relating to the trafficking of women and children into the United States for sexual exploitation. The intent is to discover the extent and complexity of the problem, the cost in both human and economic terms, and research directions toward the development of probable political, legal, economic, and social solutions. A subject rife with research possibilities and probable solutions, trafficking is poorly defined, differentially and intermittently quantified, and handicapped by obsolete legal codes and a sexist prostitution
enforcement paradigm. Recommended are state statute creation, police training and paradigm change, and increased/broadened victims’ services.

Keywords:

Sex Trafficking, Economics, Sex Work, Feminism, United States

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China’s One Child Policy and Male Surplus as a Source of Demand for Sex Trafficking to China

  • Andrew Thomas Hall: Honors Candidate, University of Arizona
  • Published, 2010.

Abstract:

The Chinese government cites the country’s controversial One Child Policy as a key factor in China’s economic rise over the last few decades. Lower birth rates, they argue, correlate to more rapid development. However, in a society with a deeply-rooted preference for sons, the policy has caused an unforeseen uptake in female infanticide and feticide, translating to a drastic imbalance in sex ratios in Chinese demography, particularly among under-20 Chinese. With some 40 million men unable to find wives by 2020, China faces an unprecedented demographic problem. One of the most devastating effects of the One Child Policy and sex ratio imbalance is a sharp uptake in demand for sex trafficking to China, particularly forced prostitution and trafficking for marriage. More sex trafficking in China may spell disaster not only for hundreds of thousands of women and girls trafficked for sex, but also for Chinese society at large—sex trafficking accelerates the spread of HIV and compromises national security as borders become more porous and organized crime becomes more ubiquitous. The Chinese government, the US government, inter-governmental organizations like the UN and ASEAN, and non-governmental organizations each have specific roles to play in curbing the flow of sex trafficking in China.

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Sex Trafficking in Southeast Asia: the Need for a Victim-Centered Perspective

  • Jenna Maack, J.D.: Attorney at Law
  • Published, 2008

Abstract:

Global trafficking in humans is an organized multi-billion dollar industry, second only to drug and arms trafficking. But unlike drugs and guns, these criminal organizations operate with impunity and near immunity – they are rarely apprehended and prosecuted in most legal jurisdictions. Sadly, it is far more likely for a criminal to be prosecuted in Southeast Asia for selling illegally copied DVDs then for selling a child into prostitution against her will. While all Southeast Asian countries have made trafficking illegal (discussed infra), this prohibition is rarely enforced primarily for the following reasons: culturally ingrained attitudes about women; porous borders; the difficulty detecting traffickers; and the fact that sex trafficking is such a lucrative enterprise, often involving corruption of law enforcement officials.

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Migration and Debt Bondage: Manifestations and Policy Recommendations

  • Bridget O’Riordan: Intern for the The Trans-Border Institute, Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies at the University of San Diego
  • Published, 2010.

Abstract:

The increase in movement between nations has lead to more opportunities for trafficking and exploitation. Workers, often in great need of employment, can easily fall victim as their desperation leads them to situations of vulnerability. Due to such vulnerability, a power disparity is created between the workers and their employers, which leads to abuse. Many of these abuses result when migrants are stripped of their rights and incur unbearable levels of debt during the recruitment period. If recruitment methods and policy were changed to promote transparency and eliminate debt, the propensity of workers to be trafficked and engaged in forced labor would be significantly diminished.

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Promoting Education and Employment for Women and Girls as Foundations for Effective Human Trafficking Prevention

  • Elizabeth A. Léone: Edith Coliver Intern Representing Human Rights Advocates, University of San Francisco School of Law’s International Human Rights Clinic
  • Published, 2011.

Abstract:

Despite a growing awareness of the problem of human trafficking, many of the underlying problems that cause trafficking are not being sufficiently addressed. While prevention is often discussed as a crucial element in the fight against trafficking, many states lack prevention programming, legislation, or have programming that consists solely of awareness- raising media campaigns. This report will focus on advances in prevention programming that address root economic causes of trafficking by utilizing education and employment for girls and women.

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Moving Upstream: The Merits of a Public Health Law Approach to Human Trafficking

  • Jonathan Todres: Associate Professor of Law, Georgia State University College of Law
  • Published, 2011.

Abstract:

Human trafficking, a gross violation of human rights and human dignity, has been identified by numerous government leaders as one of the priority issues of our time. Legislative efforts over the past decade have produced a patchwork of criminal laws and some assistance programs for victims. There is no evidence, however, that these efforts have reduced the incidence of trafficking. This lack of meaningful progress prompts questions as to what the best framework is for addressing human trafficking. This Article begins with a discussion of the limitations inherent in the current law-enforcement-centric approach to the problem. It then explores the merits of a public health approach to human trafficking. As evidenced with governmental and community responses to issues such as road safety and smoking, public health strategies have proven successful in reducing harm by focusing on prevention and addressing underlying causes. Ultimately, this Article concludes that, although a public health approach alone is not sufficient, public health methodologies can advance anti-trafficking efforts in ways currently underutilized or not contemplated by a criminal law model, and reveal deep-seated structural challenges impeding the success of current legislative and policy initiatives designed to combat human trafficking.

Keywords:

Human Trafficking, Public Health, Prevention, Evidence-Based Research, Root Causes, Children

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To submit a White Paper, email theacademy (at) notforsalecampaign dot org



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